Table 2

Summary of psychosocial screening.

ArticleStudy DesignPsychosocial Scales UsedPopulationNumber of PatientsTime From Injury or Follow-Up PeriodPreoperative Collection Level of Evidence a Key Findings
Ahmed et al (2019)57 Cross-sectional surveyBRS, PSEQLow back pain, neck pain195NANAIVIndependent negative associations of resilience and pain self-efficacy scores with ODI and NDI in patients with low back and neck pain
Coronado et al (2021)58 Retrospective cohortBRS, PSEQLaminectomy2486 wk and 12 moNoIIIAssociation with resilience and physical function, pain interference, social participation, and disability at both time points; association with pain self-efficacy and disability at 12 mo
Mok et al (2021)63 Retrospective medical record review, abstractShort Grit Scale, Self-Scoring Self-Control ScaleACDF, MI-D, MI-TLIF696 mo for ACDF, 2 wk for MI-D, and 6 wk for MI-TLIFNoIIINo significant difference in either grit or self-control and ODI and NDI scores
Wibault et al (2017)69 Randomized controlled trialSwedish version of the Self-Efficacy ScaleACDF, PCF2026 moYesISelf-efficacy improved in patients exposed to physical therapy and those not exposed to physical therapy postoperatively; however, self-efficacy was not studied as a modifier of functional outcomes
Block et al (2019)61 Prospective cohortPAM-13Spinal surgery, spinal cord stimulation581mean 180 d (SD 79.1)YesIIPatient activation mediated the association between negative risk factors and pain and disability
Skolasky et al (2011)60 Prospective cohortPAM-13Lumbar fusion6512 and 24 moYesIIPositive association with patient activation and functional improvement and engagement in physical therapy after surgery
Patel et al (2019)62 Retrospective cohortPAM-10ACDF646 wk, 3 mo, 6 mo, and 12 moYesIIINo association between patient activation and any measure of postoperative recovery
  • a Level of evidence based upon the Journal for Bone and Joint Surgery criteria and focused on the psychosocial outcome of interest.70

  • ACDF, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; BRS, Brief Resilience Scale; MI-D, minimally invasive lumbar decompression; MI-TLIF, minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; NA, not available; NDI, Neck Disability Index; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; PAM, patient activation measure; PCF, posterior cervical fusion; PSEQ, pain self-efficacy questionnaire.