Table 1

Summary of studies included.

AuthorYearSurgical ApproachOperation n Mean Age, yType
Chowdhury & Haque11 2014PosteriorC1-C3 lateral mass fusion640.8Prospective
Dalbayrak et al25 2009PosteriorC2 DPS224Prospective
PosteriorC2-C3 fusion245Prospective
Li et al26 2007PosteriorC2-C3 fusion2043.5Retrospective
PosteriorC1-C3 pedicle fusion448Retrospective
Singh et al15 2014PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle fusion1036.6Prospective
Lang et al19 2016PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle MIS636.5Retrospective
PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle1434.5Retrospective
Kong et al12 2020AnteriorACDF4643Retrospective
Jin et al27 2020AnteriorACDF2044.7Retrospective
PosteriorC1-C3 pedicle fusion2548Retrospective
Ying et al17 2008AnteriorACDF3032Retrospective
Li et al23 2015AnteriorACDF3842.8Retrospective
Rajasekaran et al28 2012PosteriorC2 DPS, navigation2038Prospective
Taller et al29 2000PosteriorC2 DPS, navigation1044.8Retrospective
Boullosa et al30 2004PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle fusion1035.6Prospective
Park et al31 2007AnteriorACDF1141.8Retrospective
Xu et al32 2010AnteriorACDF2841Retrospective
ElMiligui et al33 2010PosteriorC2 DPS1537Prospective
Ma et al34 2010PosteriorC2-C3 fusion3545Retrospective
Tian et al35 2012PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle screw fusion1438.2Retrospective
Wang et al36 2013AnteriorC3 corpectomy + fusion with screw + plate C2-C41134Retrospective
Wu et al37 2012PosteriorC2 DPS, MIS1050.8Retrospective
El Harawy38 2013PosteriorC2 DPS935.7Retrospective
Liu et al39 2013Combined1339.4Retrospective
Salunke et al40 2018PosteriorC2-C3 fusion942.4Prospective
Li et al23 2018PosteriorC2-C3 fusion2342.7Retrospective
Prost et al16 2019AnteriorACDF4Prospective
PosteriorC2-C3 fusion7Prospective
Patel et al18 2020AnteriorACDF1239.8Retrospective
PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle screw fusion941.3Retrospective
Man Kyu et al41 2019PosteriorC2 DPS, MIS751.3Retrospective
Liu et al42 2020PosteriorC2 DPS2545.4Prospective
Seo et al43 2021AnteriorACDF540.4Retrospective
Hur et al44 2013AnteriorACDF1751Retrospective
Wang et al36 2014PosteriorC1-C2 fusion544.8Retrospective
Ge et al45 2015AnteriorACDF2436.5Retrospective
PosteriorC2-C3 pedicle screw fusion1439.6Retrospective
Wei et al46 2015AnteriorACDF2839.2Retrospective
AnteriorACDF with cage2142.5Retrospective
Buchholz et al47 2015PosteriorC2 DPS, MIS555Retrospective
Wei et al48 2015AnteriorACDF with cage1536.8Prospective
Wang et al36 2015Combined1139Retrospective
Jain et al49 2017AnteriorACDF44Retrospective
  • ACDF, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; DPS, direct pedicle screw; MIS, minimally invasive surgery.