Table 2

The linear regression model on back pain relief.

Co-variateEffectp-valueEstimate95% confidence intervals
Ageper year0.940.00-0.040.03
Sexfemale vs. male0.0081.030.271.78
Disc herniationno vs. yes0.87-0.07-0.870.74
Number of segmentsmono- vs. bisegmental0.0141.020.211.83
Treated segmentL3-4 vs. L5-S10.016-2.36-4.27-0.45
L4-5 vs. L5-S10.360.39-0.441.22
Back pain atbaselineper point<0.0010.870.701.03
Leg pain atbaselineper point0.25-0.07-0.200.05
TreatmentVTDR vs. ALIF<0.0012.761.783.73
Follow-upintervalper month0.270.02-0.020.07
  • Co-variates associated with the back pain relief are bold.