Table 1

Inclusion criteria used for patient enrollment at the time of surgery.

Inclusion Criteria
  • Age 21 to 70 years

  • Degenerative disc disease as evidenced by:

    • History, clinical and radiographic findings

    • Darkened disc on MRI

  • Decreased disc height compared to adjacent disc(s)

  • Positive discography at the affected level

  • One lumbar spine level condition from L2 to S1

  • Minimum disc height of 5.5 mm

  • Intact endplates at the affected disc level

  • Six months of failed nonoperative care

  • Patient is able to complete a 2-year follow-up visitation schedule

  • VAS score ≥5 on a 10-point scale

  • ODI score ≥40 on a 100-point scale

  • MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; VAS, visual analog scale.