Table 4

Adverse events and complications related to irrigation during lumbar spinal endoscopy reported by responding spine surgeons.

Adverse Events or Complications n %Cumulative %
Headaches and seizures
 Headache and seizure20.875.8
 Headache and seizure, and abdominal pain10.476.2
 Headache and seizure, nerve root injury10.476.6
 Headache, neck pain31.277.8
Neck pain and seizures
 Neck pain12582.8
 Neck pain and seizure10.483.2
 Neck pain and seizure, soft tissue edema10.483.6
 Neck pain and stiffness10.484
 Neck pain, delirium10.484.4
Nerve damage and neurological deficit
 Nerve root injury31.285.6
 Nerve root injury, infection10.486
 Nerve root injury, seizure10.486.4
 Dural edema10.486.8
 Numbness in lower extremities20.887.6
 Cauda equina syndrome10.490
Autonomic dysreflexia with hypertension
 Autonomic dysreflexia with hypertension177.297.2
 Durotomy, headache, and autonomic dysreflexia with hypertension10.497.6
 Paralysis, autonomic dysreflexia with hypertension10.498
Other adverse events
 Prolonged wakeup from general anesthesia10.498.4
 Prolonged postoperative recovery due to hypovolemia170.498.8
 Soft tissue edema20.899.6
 Epidural hematoma10.4100
 Missing response10.4100.4
  • a The cumulative total exceeds 100 due to rounding.